This article discusses references and variables in Ruby along with the mutability or immutablility of objects. It serves as a lead-in to separate articles that discuss mutating and non-mutating methods, and pass by reference/pass by value in Ruby.

Note: This article was originally published on the Launch School blog on 2016–07–23

This is the first in a series of three articles that discuss how Ruby manipulates variables and objects, and, in particular, how objects are passed around in a Ruby program. You can find many such discussions in articles that attempt to answer the question “Is Ruby pass by reference or pass by value?” Our goal in this series isn’t necessarily to answer this question — though we will provide an answer, of sorts — but to put that question in the context of how Ruby actually works.


This article discusses whether ruby is pass by value or pass by reference. It is the final part of a 3 part series; the other two articles discuss variables, references, and object mutability; and mutating vs non-mutating methods.

Note: This article was originally published on the Launch School blog on 2016–07–23

This is the last in a series of three articles that discuss how ruby manipulates variables and objects, and, in particular, how objects are passed around in a ruby program. If you haven’t read the first two articles, you may want to check them out first: Understand Variable References and Mutability and Ruby’s Mutating and Non-Mutating Methods.

We now have a good grip on how ruby uses variables to reference objects, what the terms mutability and immutability mean, and what it means for a method to be…


A cheat sheet of some of key commands at our disposal when using Atom text editor.

Note: This article was originally published on the Launch School blog on 2016–02–07

Atom is one of the newer text editors that has been released to the public. It is open source, and the official release for it was only just in June 2015. Yet, even for being as new as it is, Atom has a wide array features similar to what you would see in an editor like Sublime Text, and its popularity is on the rise.

This post is here to help those new to Atom and even those who have been using it since it’s pre-release phase…


We talk about many of the wrong ways, or anti-patterns, that can derail beginners on their journey to becoming professional programmers.

Note: This article was originally published on the Launch School blog on 2016–06–22

It’s often difficult to prescribe a “right way” for a beginner to learn programming because everyone learns differently. But there are certainly wrong ways to learn. Over the years, we’ve seen many learning anti-patterns. In this article, we’ll talk about many of them and how to avoid them. This article is geared towards those who haven’t started the Launch School program yet, or those who are very early in the process.

These learning anti-patterns can be broken down into the following categories:

  1. Expectations
  2. Study Habits
  3. Code/Technical
  4. Communication


This article discusses mutating and non-mutating methods in Ruby. It is the second part of a 3 part series; the other two articles discuss variables, references, and object mutability; and whether Ruby is pass by reference or value.

Note: This article was originally published on the Launch School blog on 2016–07–23

This is the second in a series of three articles that discuss how Ruby manipulates variables and objects, and, in particular, how objects are passed around in a Ruby program. In the Understand Variable References and Mutability article, we explored how Ruby uses variables — variables don’t actually contain values, but instead serve as references to objects. We also discussed the concepts of object mutability and immutability, and introduced the concepts of pass by value and pass by reference.

In this article, we discuss methods, and how…


We cover some basic Ruby concepts that tend to trip up beginners.

Note: This article was originally published on the Launch School blog on 2016–03–02

This is part 3 of our live session series on “Beginning Ruby”. This series is not an introduction to Ruby or programming. Instead, it’s a focused discussion on topics that many people new to programming get tripped up on. To get the most out of this series, you should already have some familarity with basic programming concepts and have been dabbling a bit in Ruby. …


We cover some basic Ruby concepts that tend to trip up beginners.

Note: This article was originally published on the Launch School blog on 2016–02–26

This is part 2 of our live session series on “Beginning Ruby”. This series is not an introduction to Ruby or programming. Instead, it’s a focused discussion on topics that many people new to programming get tripped up on. To get the most out of this series, you should already have some familarity with basic programming concepts and have been dabbling a bit in Ruby. …


We cover some basic Ruby concepts that tend to trip up beginners.

Note: This article was originally published on the Launch School blog on 2016–02–25

This is part 1 of our live session series on “Beginning Ruby”. This series is not an introduction to Ruby or programming. Instead, it’s a focused discussion on topics that many people new to programming get tripped up on. To get the most out of this series, you should already have some familiarity with basic programming concepts and have been dabbling a bit in Ruby. …


How does MiniTest work in Ruby? In this tutorial, we build our own version of MiniTest from scratch to show you how it works and learn about Ruby Metaprogramming.

Note: This article was originally published on the Launch School blog on 2015–12–23

Reading through source code is a great way to learn and level up as a programmer. However, I used to skim through code just to get to the more beautifully-written part of the project, without giving much consideration to the overall structure of the project and what holds everything together. Casually reading code also often doesn’t leave a lasting impression and helped me grow as a developer, because it wasn’t obvious what aspects I should work on to be as good as the author.

I recently decided…


In this tutorial, you will learn how to install PostgreSQL on a Mac with the Postgres Graphic Installer, the Postgres.app Mac app, and with Homebrew.

Note: This article was originally published on the Launch School blog on 2014–08–19

Introduction

Postgres is a powerful and free object-relational database management system. It has gained a lot of momentum since its introduction in 1995 because of its robustness and powerful features it ships with out of the box. In this article, we’ll walk through the process of installing a Postgres database on a Mac OS X machine and set it up for Ruby on Rails development.

Install Postgres Database with Homebrew

Homebrew is a popular package manager for OS X. To install Postgres with Homebrew, follow the steps below:

The first thing to do…

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